Science Enabled by Specimen Data
Calvente, A., A. P. Alves da Silva, D. Edler, F. A. Carvalho, M. R. Fantinati, A. Zizka, and A. Antonelli. 2023. Spiny but photogenic: amateur sightings complement herbarium specimens to reveal the bioregions of cacti. American Journal of Botany. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.16235
Premise: Cacti are characteristic elements of the Neotropical flora and of major interest for biogeographic, evolutionary, and ecological studies. Here we test global biogeographic boundaries for Neotropical Cactaceae using specimen‐based occurrences coupled with data from visual observations, as a means to tackle the known collection biases in the family.MethodsSpecies richness and record density were assessed for preserved specimens and human observations and a bioregional scheme tailored to Cactaceae was produced using the interactive web application Infomap Bioregions based on data from 261,272 point records cleaned through automated and manual steps.Key ResultsWe find that areas in Mexico and southwestern USA, Eastern Brazil and along the Andean region have the greatest density of records and the highest species richness. Human observations complement information from preserved specimens substantially, especially along the Andes. We propose 24 cacti bioregions, among which the most species‐rich are: northern Mexico/southwestern USA, central Mexico, southern central Mexico, Central America, Mexican Pacific coast, central and southern Andes, northwestern Mexico/extreme southwestern USA, southwestern Bolivia, northeastern Brazil, Mexico/Baja California.ConclusionsThe bioregionalization proposed shows biogeographical boundaries specific to cacti, and can thereby aid further evolutionary, biogeographic, and ecological studies by providing a validated framework for further analyses. This classification builds upon, and is distinctive from, other expert‐derived regionalization schemes for other taxa. Our results showcase how observation data, including citizen‐science records, can complement traditional specimen‐based data for biogeographic research, particularly for taxa with specific specimen collection and preservation challenges and those that are threatened or internationally protected.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Molano-Flores, B., S. A. Johnson, P. B. Marcum, and M. A. Feist. 2023. Utilizing herbarium specimens to assist with the listing of rare plants. Frontiers in Conservation Science 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcosc.2023.1144593
Funding for rare plant conservation is limited. In addition, many aspects of the biology and ecology of rare plants are unknown. Therefore, low-cost data generation approaches to fill these gaps should be pursued. Herbarium specimens can be used as a low-cost alternative to learn about the basic biology and ecology of rare plant species. The information provided on herbarium labels has dramatically increased in recent decades to include precise locality (i.e., latitude/longitude), exact dates, habitat, associated species, and substrate. In addition, herbarium specimens are being digitized and the resulting images and data are available via clearinghouses such as GBIF and SEINet. Already, herbarium specimens of rare plants have been used to develop habitat suitability models, predict range shifts, and assess changes in flower phenology due to climate change. Herbarium specimens can also provide a wealth of information about the reproductive biology and biotic interactions of rare plants. In this paper, we will demonstrate how this information can be accessed and present a practical application for using this information to populate an important federal listing document in the USA, Species Status Assessments (SSA). We will provide examples from the literature, as well as case studies from our own research, to demonstrate how this information can be collected from herbarium specimens and how and where to incorporate this information into SSAs. More generally, data gleaned from herbarium specimens can become part of a conservationist’s tool kit to further our knowledge of past, present, and future trends for rare plants. Additional knowledge of a species’ biology and ecology allows land managers and conservationists to make more informed decisions and allows for greater protection of listed species.
Freire-Fierro, A., F. Forest, D. S. Devey, J. F. B. Pastore, J. W. Horn, X.-J. Ge, Z. Wang, et al. 2023. Monnina (Polygalaceae), a New World monophyletic genus full of contrasts. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boad026
Endemic to the Neotropics, Monnina is the second largest genus of Polygalaceae, yet little is known about its phylogenetic history, biogeography, and morphological character evolution. To address these knowledge gaps, we conducted Bayesian and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of nuclear ITS and plastid trnL–F regions to test the monophyly of Monnina s.l. We used this phylogenetic framework to (i) infer divergence time estimates of lineages within the genus and reconstruct their historical biogeography; (ii) reconstruct the evolution of morphological characters of putative ecological and evolutionary importance in Monnina; and (iii) test for correlations between our phylogenetic hypothesis and environmental data. Our results reveal that Monnina is monophyletic with an indehiscent, 1–2-seeded fruit as a synapomorphy for the genus. We identify six clades within Monnina based on our combined phylogenetic results: Clades A, B, and D are primarily distributed in southern and eastern South America, Clades C and E are primarily Central Andean, and Clade F is chiefly distributed in the Northern Andes and Central America. The ancestor of the Monnina stem lineage dispersed from Australia/Africa to South America during the late Eocene to early Oligocene. The divergences of major lineages within the genus began in the early Miocene. We inferred the most recent common ancestor of Monnina to be an herbaceous plant with one-seeded samaroid fruits. The origins of fleshy fruits and shrubby habits are phylogenetically correlated within Monnina, and their concerted convergent evolution may have promoted increased net diversification rates in the two most species-rich subclades of the genus.
Tataridas, A., M. Moreira, L. Frazão, P. Kanatas, N. Ota, and I. Travlos. 2023. Biology of Invasive Plants 5. Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Invasive Plant Science and Management: 1–53. https://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2023.21
(no abstract available)
Rosas, M. R., R. A. Segovia, and P. C. Guerrero. 2023. Climatic Niche Dynamics of the Astereae Lineage and Haplopappus Species Distribution following Amphitropical Long-Distance Dispersal. Plants 12: 2721. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12142721
The tribe Astereae (Asteraceae) displays an American Amphitropical Disjunction. To understand the eco-evolutionary dynamics associated with a long-distance dispersal event and subsequent colonization of extratropical South America, we compared the climatic and geographic distributions of South American species with their closest North American relatives, focusing on the diverse South American Astereae genus, Haplopappus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two South American genera are closely related to seven North American genera. The climatic niche overlap (D = 0.5) between South and North America exhibits high stability (0.89), low expansion (0.12), and very low unfilling (0.04). The distribution of the North American species predicted the climatic and geographic space occupied by the South American species. In central Chile, Haplopappus showed a non-random latitudinal gradient in species richness, with Mediterranean climate variables mainly explaining the variation. Altitudinal patterns indicated peak richness at 600 m, declining at lower and higher elevations. These findings support climatic niche conservatism in shaping Haplopappus species distribution and diversity. Two major endemism zones were identified in central Chile and the southern region, with a transitional zone between Mediterranean and Temperate macro-bioclimates. Our results indicate strong niche conservatism following long-distance dispersal and slight niche expansion due to unique climatic variables in each hemisphere.
Graham, C. D. K., E. J. Forrestel, A. L. Schilmiller, A. T. Zemenick, and M. G. Weber. 2023. Evolutionary signatures of a trade-off in direct and indirect defenses across the wild grape genus Vitis. Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1093/evolut/qpad140
Evolutionary correlations between chemical defense and protection by mutualist bodyguards have been long predicted, but tests of these pattern remain rare. We use a phylogenetic framework to test for evolutionary correlations indicative of trade-offs or synergisms between direct defense in the form of plant secondary metabolism, and indirect defense in the form of leaf domatia, across 33 species in the wild grape genus, Vitis. We also performed a bioassay with a generalist herbivore to associate our chemical phenotypes with herbivore palatability. Finally, we tested whether defensive traits correlate with the average abiotic characteristics of each species’ contemporary range and whether these correlations were consistent with plant defense theory. We found a negative evolutionary correlation between domatia size and the diversity of secondary metabolites in Vitis leaf tissue across the genus, and also that leaves with a higher diversity and richness of secondary metabolites were less palatable to a generalist herbivore, consistent with a trade-off in chemical and mutualistic defense investment. Predictions from plant defense theory were not supported by associations between investment in defense phenotypes and abiotic variables. Our work demonstrates an evolutionary pattern indicative of a trade-off between indirect and direct defense strategies across the Vitis genus.
Nikkel, E., D. R. Clements, D. Anderson, and J. L. Williams. 2023. Regional habitat suitability for aquatic and terrestrial invasive plant species may expand or contract with climate change. Biological Invasions. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-023-03139-8
The threat of invasive species to biodiversity and ecosystem structure is exacerbated by the increasingly concerning outlook of predicted climate change and other human influences. Developing preventative management strategies for invasive plant species before they establish is crucial for effective management. To examine how climate change may impact habitat suitability, we modeled the current and future habitat suitability of two terrestrial species, Geranium lucidum and Pilosella officinarum , and two aquatic species, Butomus umbellatus and Pontederia crassipes , that are relatively new invasive plant species regionally, and are currently spreading in the Pacific Northwest (PNW, North America), an area of unique natural areas, vibrant economic activity, and increasing human population. Using North American presence records, downscaled climate variables, and human influence data, we developed an ensemble model of six algorithms to predict the potential habitat suitability under current conditions and projected climate scenarios RCP 4.5, 7.0, and 8.5 for 2050 and 2080. One terrestrial species ( P. officinarum ) showed declining habitat suitability in future climate scenarios (contracted distribution), while the other terrestrial species ( G. lucidum ) showed increased suitability over much of the region (expanded distribution overall). The two aquatic species were predicted to have only moderately increased suitability, suggesting aquatic plant species may be less impacted by climate change. Our research provides a template for regional-scale modelling of invasive species of concern, thus assisting local land managers and practitioners to inform current and future management strategies and to prioritize limited available resources for species with expanding ranges.
FEDONIUK, T. P., and О. V. SKYDAN. 2023. INCORPORATING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES INTO A FRAMEWORK FOR BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND PREVENTING BIOLOGICAL THREATS TO LANDSCAPES. Kosmìčna nauka ì tehnologìâ 29: 10–21. https://doi.org/10.15407/knit2023.02.010
As the long-term sustainability of both natural and artificial phytocenoses is under serious threat from biological invaders, the global community is working hard to prevent invasions and rapidly eradicate or halt the spread of invasive species. By tracking the actual spread of “invaders” or predicting areas at risk of invasion, geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing of the Earth (RSE) can significantly assist the process of ensuring biosecurity at the state level. Research has shown the potential of remote sensing and GIS applications for invasive species mapping and modeling, even though it is currently restricted to a small number of taxa. This article gives examples of how GIS and RSE can be used to track invasive species like Utricularia australis R. br. and Lemna aequinoctialis Welw. To describe the distribution of species, current Internet databases of species distribution and the author’s own research were used. It also talks about promising ways to find and track the spread of invasive species, like using NDVI indices, chlorophyll and xanthophyll content to find changes in regional biodiversity, some problems with finding changes in biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, and mapping invasion risk. The study also demonstrates how GIS technology may be used to identify agricultural landscape biodiversity using radiometric space data from Sentinel 1, followed by a verification of the findings. The prospects of spatial, spectral, and temporal analysis of images are determined, as they make it possible to outline the boundaries of ecosystems, biometric characteristics of species, characteristics of their current and potential areas of distribution, etc.
Babin, C. H., and C. D. Bell. 2023. The effects of climate change on cytotype distributions of endemic genera in the North American Coastal Plain. Plant Ecology & Diversity. https://doi.org/10.1080/17550874.2023.2239244
Background Approximately 33% of plant species face extinction due to climate change. Polyploidisation, a process resulting in more than two complete sets of chromosomes, may be promoted by periods of climate fluctuations. Ecological niche modelling (ENM) using occurrences of endemic plants in the North American Coastal Plain (NACP) biodiversity hotspot could be used to evaluate the potential effects of climate change on cytotype distributions. Aims We used known diploid and polyploid taxa endemic to the NACP to test hypotheses that diploids and polyploids differed in habitat preferences, considerable overlap existed between cytotypes, and polyploid distributions would increase under climate change projections. Methods We examined niche identity and overlap of 28 congeneric ploidy level pairs and performed ENM to evaluate how climate change could affect these groups. Results Congeneric ploidy level pairs differed significantly in niche identity, and overlap varied across genera. Eleven genera showed greater than 100% increases in habitat suitability and six genera showed almost no remaining suitable habitat in at least one future climate scenario. Conclusions With 70% of the species that showed substantial declines in projected suitable habitat being of conservation concern, we propose that future studies of these genera should be a primary focus in the NACP.
Geier, C., J. M. Bouchal, S. Ulrich, D. Uhl, T. Wappler, S. Wedmann, R. Zetter, et al. 2023. Potential pollinators and paleoecological aspects of Eocene Ludwigia (Onagraceae) from Eckfeld, Germany. Palaeoworld. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palwor.2023.07.003
Paleogene flower-insect interactions and paleo-pollination processes are, in general, poorly understood and fossil evidence for such floral and faunal interactions are rarely reported. To shed light on angiosperm flower-insect interactions, we investigated several hundred fossil flowers and insects from the middle Eocene Fossil Lagerstätte of Eckfeld, Germany. During our work, we discovered a unique fossil Ludwigia flower (bud) with in situ pollen. The ecological preferences (climate, biome, habitat, etc.) of extant Ludwigia and the paleoecological configurations of the fossil plant assemblage support the taxonomic affiliation of the flower bud and an Eocene presence of Ludwigia in the vicinity of the former Lake Eckfeld. Today’s Ludwigia are mostly pollinated by Hymenoptera (bees). Therefore, we screened all currently known hymenopteran fossils from Eckfeld but found no Ludwigia pollen adhering to any of the specimens. On the contrary, we discovered Ludwigia pollen adhering to two different groups of Coleoptera (beetles). Our study suggests that during the Eocene of Europe, Ludwigia flowers were visited and probably pollinated by beetles and over time there was a shift in primary flower visitors/pollinators, from beetles to bees, sometime during the late Paleogene to Neogene.