Science Enabled by Specimen Data

Raggi, L., C. Zucchini, E. Sayde, D. Gigante, and V. Negri. 2024. Priority areas for the establishment of genetic reserves to actively protect key crop wild relative species in Italy. Global Ecology and Conservation 50: e02836.

Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) are wild plant taxa genetically close to a crop. Being a precious source of genetic variability and of traits for crop improvement, CWR have a high socio-economic value and are identified among the main plant genetic resources. Alarming enough, the inter- and intraspecific diversity, as well as their habitat diversity, is under threat of irremediable loss. Italy is the second richest country in Europe in terms of plant species number; applying the taxon group concept 5712 have been recently identified as CWR. The aims of the present research are to identify the best sites for: i) the institution of genetic reserves to actively protect CWR species of the key crop genera as Allium, Brassica and Triticum and ii) performing new collection missions to reach adequate ex situ conservation of target species. Georeferenced data were retrieved from different online databases. CAPFITOGEN tools were initially used to develop an ecogeographic land characterisation map (ELC) of Italy. Geographical distribution data were assembled for 379 populations of 18 CWR taxa. Results of the complementarity analysis showed that 10 protected areas provide coverage of the 46.4% of the target conservation units and include 66.7% of the priority CWR taxa investigated. Alarming enough, only 7.4% of the 379 populations are currently conserved ex situ; among the 18 ecogeographic land characterisation categories only 3 are covered by ex situ conservation. This is the first study where most suitable protected areas for the institution of genetic reserves are proposed for Italy for the protection of multiple CWR taxa of key genera; this is relevant also considering the global value of many of the related crop such as different wheat species, cabbages, rape, garlic and onion. Being already dedicated to habitat and species conservation, the identified sites are optimal candidates for the institution of genetic reserves. Results will hopefully also guide new collecting missions that are urgently needed to strength ex situ conservation of such precious genetic resources.

Noori, S., A. Hofmann, D. Rödder, M. Husemann, and H. Rajaei. 2024. A window to the future: effects of climate change on the distribution patterns of Iranian Zygaenidae and their host plants. Biodiversity and Conservation.

Climate change has been suggested as an important human-induced driver for the ongoing sixth mass extinction. As a common response to climate change, and particularly global warming, species move toward higher latitudes or shift uphill. Furthermore, rapid climate change impacts the biotic interactions of species, particularly in the case of Zygaenid moths which exhibit high specialization in both habitat and host plant preferences. Iranian Zygaenidae are relatively well-known and represent a unique fauna with a high endemism rate (46%) in the whole Palearctic; as such they are a good model group to study the impact of climate change on future distributions. In this study, we used species distribution models (SDMs) and ensembles of small models (ESMs) to investigate the impact of climate change on the future distribution of endemic and non-endemic species of zygaenids, as well as their larval host plants. Three different climate scenarios were applied to forecast the probable responses of the species to different climate change intensities. Our results suggest that the central and southern parts of the country will be impacted profoundly by climate change compared to the northern regions. Beyond this, most endemic species will experience an altitudinal shift from their current range, while non-endemic species may move towards higher latitudes. Considering that the regions with higher diversity of zygaenids are limited to mountainous areas, mainly within the Irano-Anatolian biodiversity hotspot, the identification of their local high diversity regions for conservation practices has a high priority.

Anon. 2023. Ecological Niche Modelling of an Industrially Important Mushroom - Ganoderma lucidum (Leys.) Karsten: A Machine Learning Global Appraisal. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research 82.

Species Distribution Modelling (SDM) involves utilizing observations of a given species and its surrounding environment to produce a sound approximation of the species' potential distribution. The intricate relationships between organisms and their surroundings, coupled with the profusion of data, have captured the attention of ecologists and statisticians alike. Consequently, they have directed their efforts towards exploring the potential of machine learning techniques. Our study employs an ensemble machine learning approach to simulate the global ecological niche modelling of Ganoderma lucidum fungus. This involves the utilization of various environmental predictors and the averaging of multiple algorithms to achieve a comprehensive analysis. 563 spatially thinned presence points of G. lucidum were projected with three bio-climatic time frames, namely current, 2050, and 2070, and four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), namely 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, as well as non-climatic variables (surface soil features, land use, rooting depth and water storage capacity at rooting zone). We observed excellent model qualities as the Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC) approached 0.90. Random Forest was identified as the best individual algorithm, while the Maxent entropy was identified as the least effective for Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) of G. lucidum. Globally, under the current bio-climatic and non-bioclimatic projection, optimum habitat for this fungus covers 12510876.3 km2 area while, maximum area (13248546.9 Sq. km.) under this habitat class with future projections was recorded with RCP of 8.5 in 2070. The primary determinants of its current global distribution were ecosystem rooting depth, water storage capacity, and precipitation seasonality. While, with two future bioclimatic time frames and RCPs, Isothermality was identified as the most influential predictor. Based on our assessment, it has been determined that this particular fungus is exhibiting a persistent pattern of proliferation across the regions of Europe, America, and certain areas of India. The present investigation sought to underscore the importance of discerning the native habitats of this species, taking into account both current and anticipated climatic shifts. This knowledge is essential for effectively coordinating the artificial cultivation and natural harvesting of G. lucidum, which is necessary to meet the ever-increasing industrial demands.

Silva-Valderrama, I., J.-R. Úrbez-Torres, and T. J. Davies. 2024. From host to host: The taxonomic and geographic expansion of Botryosphaeriaceae. Fungal Biology Reviews 48: 100352.

Fungal pathogens are responsible for 30% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in plants. The risk of a pathogen emerging on a new host is strongly tied to its host breadth; however, the determinants of host range are still poorly understood. Here, we explore the factors that shape host breadth of plant pathogens within Botryosphaeriaceae, a fungal family associated with several devastating diseases in economically important crops. While most host plants are associated with just one or a few fungal species, some hosts appear to be susceptible to infection by multiple fungi. However, the variation in the number of fungal taxa recorded across hosts is not easily explained by heritable plant traits. Nevertheless, we reveal strong evolutionary conservatism in host breadth, with most fungi infecting closely related host plants, but with some notable exceptions that seem to have escaped phylogenetic constraints on host range. Recent anthropogenic movement of plants, including widespread planting of crops, has provided new opportunities for pathogen spillover. We suggest that constraints to pathogen distributions will likely be further disrupted by climate change, and we may see future emergence events in regions where hosts are present but current climate is unfavorable.

Schertler, A., B. Lenzner, S. Dullinger, D. Moser, J. L. Bufford, L. Ghelardini, A. Santini, et al. 2023. Biogeography and global flows of 100 major alien fungal and fungus‐like oomycete pathogens. Journal of Biogeography.

AbstractAimSpreading infectious diseases associated with introduced pathogens can have devastating effects on native biota and human livelihoods. We analyse the global distribution of 100 major alien fungal and oomycete pathogens with substantial socio‐economic and environmental impacts and examine their taxonomy, ecological characteristics, temporal accumulation trajectories, regional hot‐ and coldspots of taxon richness and taxon flows between continents.LocationGlobal.TaxonAlien/cryptogenic fungi and fungus‐like oomycetes, pathogenic to plants or animals.MethodsTo identify over/underrepresented classes and phyla, we performed Chi2 tests of independence. To describe spatial patterns, we calculated the region‐wise richness and identified hot‐ and coldspots, defined as residuals after correcting taxon richness for region area and sampling effort via a quasi‐Poisson regression. We examined the relationship with environmental and socio‐economic drivers with a multiple linear regression and evaluated a potential island effect. Regional first records were pooled over 20‐year periods, and for global flows the links between the native range to the alien regions were mapped.ResultsPeronosporomycetes (Oomycota) were overrepresented among taxa and regional taxon richness was positively correlated with area and sampling effort. While no island effect was found, likely due to host limitations, hotspots were correlated with human modification of terrestrial land, per capita gross domestic product, temperate and tropical forest biomes, and orobiomes. Regional first records have increased steeply in recent decades. While Europe and Northern America were major recipients, about half of the taxa originate from Asia.Main ConclusionsWe highlight the putative importance of anthropogenic drivers, such as land use providing a conducive environment, contact opportunities and susceptible hosts, as well as economic wealth likely increasing colonisation pressure. While most taxa were associated with socio‐economic impacts, possibly partly due to a bias in research focus, about a third show substantial impacts to both socio‐economy and the environment, underscoring the importance of maintaining a wholescale perspective across natural and managed systems.

Qin, F., T. Xue, X. Zhang, X. Yang, J. Yu, S. R. Gadagkar, and S. Yu. 2023. Past climate cooling and orogenesis of the Hengduan Mountains have influenced the evolution of Impatiens sect. Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) in the Northern Hemisphere. BMC Plant Biology 23.

Background Impatiens sect. Impatiens is distributed across the Northern Hemisphere and has diversified considerably, particularly within the Hengduan Mountains (HDM) in southwest China. Yet, the infra-sectional phylogenetic relationships are not well resolved, largely due to limited taxon sampling and an insufficient number of molecular markers. The evolutionary history of its diversification is also poorly understood. In this study, plastome data and the most complete sampling to date were used to reconstruct a robust phylogenetic framework for this section. The phylogeny was then used to investigate its biogeographical history and diversification patterns, specifically with the aim of understanding the role played by the HDM and past climatic changes in its diversification. Results A stable phylogeny was reconstructed that strongly supported both the monophyly of the section and its division into seven major clades (Clades I-VII). Molecular dating and ancestral area reconstruction suggest that sect. Impatiens originated in the HDM and Southeast China around 11.76 Ma, after which different lineages dispersed to Northwest China, temperate Eurasia, and North America, mainly during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. An intercontinental dispersal event from East Asia to western North America may have occurred via the Bering Land Bridge or Aleutian Islands. The diversification rate was high during its early history, especially with the HDM, but gradually decreased over time both within and outside the HDM. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the distribution pattern of species richness was strongly associated with elevation range, elevation, and mean annual temperature. Finally, ancestral niche analysis indicated that sect. Impatiens originated in a relatively cool, middle-elevation area. Conclusions We inferred the evolutionary history of sect. Impatiens based on a solid phylogenetic framework. The HDM was the primary source or pump of its diversity in the Northern Hemisphere. Orogeny and climate change may have also shaped its diversification rates, as a steady decrease in the diversification rate coincided with the uplift of the HDM and climate cooling. These findings provide insights into the distribution pattern of sect. Impatiens and other plants in the Northern Hemisphere.

Islomiddinov, Z. Sh., I. M. Mustafaev, J. P. Shirqulova, B. S. Khabibullaev, Y. W. Lim, et al. 2023. The first record of Pisolithus arhizus (Sclerodermataceae, Basidiomycota) in Central Asia. Ukrainian Botanical Journal 80: 337–342.

Pisolithus is a genus of gasteroid mycorrhizal symbionts associated with trees of several families of angiosperms and gymnosperms and distributed almost worldwide. Here we report a new record of Pisolithus arhizus from Tashkent, Uzbekistan, the first record of this species in Central Asia. The fruit bodies of P. arhizus were collected in several locations within the city and identified based on morphological characters. The ectomycorrhizal fungus formed symbiotic relationships with Juniperus sp. and Quercus sp. We provide its morphological description and photographs and also discuss our findings in the context of previously known records of this species.

Rodríguez-Merino, A. 2023. Identifying and Managing Areas under Threat in the Iberian Peninsula: An Invasion Risk Atlas for Non-Native Aquatic Plant Species as a Potential Tool. Plants 12: 3069.

Predicting the likelihood that non-native species will be introduced into new areas remains one of conservation’s greatest challenges and, consequently, it is necessary to adopt adequate management measures to mitigate the effects of future biological invasions. At present, not much information is available on the areas in which non-native aquatic plant species could establish themselves in the Iberian Peninsula. Species distribution models were used to predict the potential invasion risk of (1) non-native aquatic plant species already established in the peninsula (32 species) and (2) those with the potential to invade the peninsula (40 species). The results revealed that the Iberian Peninsula contains a number of areas capable of hosting non-native aquatic plant species. Areas under anthropogenic pressure are at the greatest risk of invasion, and the variable most related to invasion risk is temperature. The results of this work were used to create the Invasion Risk Atlas for Alien Aquatic Plants in the Iberian Peninsula, a novel online resource that provides information about the potential distribution of non-native aquatic plant species. The atlas and this article are intended to serve as reference tools for the development of public policies, management regimes, and control strategies aimed at the prevention, mitigation, and eradication of non-native aquatic plant species.

Boyraz Topaloğlu, Ş., Ç. Karacaoğlu, and S. S. Çağlar. 2023. Potential impacts of climate change on wild relatives of lentil (Lens spp.): An ecological niche model approach. Flora 307: 152372.

Ecological niche models play a pivotal role in assessing the impacts of climatic changes on species, and in the development of conservation strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the potential impact of different climatic factors using ecological niche modeling. These models were constructed using occurrence data and bioclimatic variables with the MaxEnt (Maximum Entropy Algorithm) modeling algorithm. The analysis covers three timeframes: the current and two future periods (2060 to 2080 and 2080 to 2100). Our findings indicate that the suitable habitats of wild lentils will be impacted to varying degrees under all future climate scenarios, with the most significant impact projected in the worst-case scenario, which predicts a temperature increase of 5°C by 2100. It is recommended to consider habitat reduction or shift in four taxa while developing conservation strategies. Comparing habitat suitability across timeframes, some species such as L. nigricans (M. Bieb.) Godron exhibited no drastic changes. On the other hand, the models predict slight reductions, shifts, or fragmentations in the potential habitats of L. culinaris subsp. odemensis (Ladiz.) M.E. Ferguson & al., L. lammotei Czefr., and L. ervoides (Brign.) Grande, in future periods. Particularly, a significant reduction and shift in the projected potential habitats of L. culinaris subsp. orientalis (Boiss.) Ponert, accepted as the progenitor of the lentil, means that conservation measures should be taken. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the significance of the protection of habitats for lentil wild relatives in specific regions, even when species are not currently under threat. It is recommended to develop ex situ and in situ conservation strategies that consider potential impacts of climate changes, especially in the centers of genetic diversity.

Cousins-Westerberg, R., N. Dakin, L. Schat, G. Kadereit, and A. M. Humphreys. 2023. Evolution of cold tolerance in the highly stress-tolerant samphires and relatives (Salicornieae: Amaranthaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.

Low temperature constitutes one of the main barriers to plant distributions, confining many clades to their ancestrally tropical biome. However, recent evidence suggests that transitions from tropical to temperate biomes may be more frequent than previously thought. Here, we study the evolution of cold and frost tolerance in the globally distributed and highly stress-tolerant Salicornieae (Salicornioideae, Amaranthaceae s.l.). We first generate a phylogenetic tree comprising almost all known species (85-90%), using newly generated (n = 106) and published nuclear-ribosomal and plastid sequences. Next, we use geographical occurrence data to document in which clades and geographical regions cold-tolerant species occur and reconstruct how cold tolerance evolved. Finally, we test for correlated evolution between frost tolerance and the annual life form. We find that frost tolerance has evolved independently in up to four Northern Hemisphere lineages but that annuals are no more likely to evolve frost tolerance than perennials, indicating the presence of different strategies for adapting to cold environments. Our findings add to mounting evidence for multiple independent out-of-the-tropics transitions among close relatives of flowering plants and raise new questions about the ecological and physiological mechanism(s) of adaptation to low temperatures in Salicornieae.