Science Enabled by Specimen Data

Serra‐Diaz, J. M., J. Borderieux, B. Maitner, C. C. F. Boonman, D. Park, W. Guo, A. Callebaut, et al. 2024. occTest: An integrated approach for quality control of species occurrence data. Global Ecology and Biogeography. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13847

Aim Species occurrence data are valuable information that enables one to estimate geographical distributions, characterize niches and their evolution, and guide spatial conservation planning. Rapid increases in species occurrence data stem from increasing digitization and aggregation efforts, and citizen science initiatives. However, persistent quality issues in occurrence data can impact the accuracy of scientific findings, underscoring the importance of filtering erroneous occurrence records in biodiversity analyses.InnovationWe introduce an R package, occTest, that synthesizes a growing open‐source ecosystem of biodiversity cleaning workflows to prepare occurrence data for different modelling applications. It offers a structured set of algorithms to identify potential problems with species occurrence records by employing a hierarchical organization of multiple tests. The workflow has a hierarchical structure organized in testPhases (i.e. cleaning vs. testing) that encompass different testBlocks grouping different testTypes (e.g. environmental outlier detection), which may use different testMethods (e.g. Rosner test, jacknife,etc.). Four different testBlocks characterize potential problems in geographic, environmental, human influence and temporal dimensions. Filtering and plotting functions are incorporated to facilitate the interpretation of tests. We provide examples with different data sources, with default and user‐defined parameters. Compared to other available tools and workflows, occTest offers a comprehensive suite of integrated tests, and allows multiple methods associated with each test to explore consensus among data cleaning methods. It uniquely incorporates both coordinate accuracy analysis and environmental analysis of occurrence records. Furthermore, it provides a hierarchical structure to incorporate future tests yet to be developed.Main conclusionsoccTest will help users understand the quality and quantity of data available before the start of data analysis, while also enabling users to filter data using either predefined rules or custom‐built rules. As a result, occTest can better assess each record's appropriateness for its intended application.

Barman, M., A. Barman, and S. Ray. 2024. Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn.: a critical review on current progress in traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological aspects and toxicity. Phytochemistry Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-024-09934-y

Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn., commonly known as garden quinine, is a perennial shrub that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It has been extensively used in various traditional medicinal practices to treat ailments such as rheumatic pain, arthritis, scrofulous, venereal disease, skin diseases, wounds, fever, cough, dysentery, and more. This review aims to critically examine a comprehensive compilation of recent research on C. inerme , encompassing its botanical characteristics, ethnomedical applications, phytochemicals, pharmacological activity, and toxicological data, in order to provide insights and inspiration for future research, promote further development, and facilitate the rational application of C. inerme. Nearly 95 chemical constituents belonging to different classes have been isolated from C. inerme , including diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, phenolic glycosides, lignans, iridoid and megastigmane glycosides. Notably, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and flavonoids are the main bioactive substances that have been extensively studied and demonstrated the most significant bioactivity. Pharmacological studies demonstrated that the extract of C. inerme exhibits a wide range of biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiinflammatory, insecticidal, antifeedant, neuroprotective, anti-motor tic, and so on, which are closely connected to its numerous ethnomedicinal applications. Nevertheless, some literature have reported the toxicity of C. inerme . Therefore, it is imperative to conduct further in-depth studies encompassing toxicology, as well as preclinical and clinical research, to ascertain the safety and efficacy of C. inerme for medicinal purposes. Graphical abstract

Ferreira, G. E., J. L. Clark, L. Clavijo, A. Zuluaga, A. Chautems, M. J. G. Hopkins, A. O. Araujo, and M. Perret. 2024. Phylogenetics, character evolution, and historical biogeography of the Neotropical genus Besleria (Gesneriaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boae007

Besleria, a genus of perennial herbs, shrubs, or small trees growing in the understorey of rainforests, is one of the largest genera of neotropical Gesneriaceae, with over 165 species. Despite the ecological importance and ubiquity of Besleria in rainforest ecosystems, taxonomic and evolutionary studies of Besleria are limited. Here, we generated a phylogenetic analysis of Besleria using four nuclear and chloroplast DNA regions (ITS, matK, rps16, and trnL-trnF) covering more than 50% of the recognized species, along with two secondary calibration points to infer divergence times. Our results support the monophyly of Besleria and allowed us to revise the infrageneric classification and biogeographical history of the genus. We identified five major clades that do not correspond to sections or subsections in previous classifications. These clades are well circumscribed geographically but remain difficult to characterize using previously hypothesized morphological characters. Biogeographical reconstructions indicate an origin in the northern Andes during the Middle Miocene (ca. 15 Mya). The current distribution patterns of this plant group have been significantly shaped by geological and climatic events, particularly Andean uplift and the formation of the Panama Isthmus.

Ramírez-Barahona, S. 2024. Incorporating fossils into the joint inference of phylogeny and biogeography of the tree fern order Cyatheales R. Warnock, and M. Zelditch [eds.],. Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1093/evolut/qpae034

Present-day geographic and phylogenetic patterns often reflect the geological and climatic history of the planet. Neontological distribution data are often sufficient to unravel a lineage’s biogeographic history, yet ancestral range inferences can be at odds with fossil evidence. Here, I use the fossilized birth–death process and the dispersal–extinction cladogenesis model to jointly infer the dated phylogeny and range evolution of the tree fern order Cyatheales. I use data for 101 fossil and 442 extant tree ferns to reconstruct the biogeographic history of the group over the last 220 million years. Fossil-aware reconstructions evince a prolonged occupancy of Laurasia over the Triassic–Cretaceous by Cyathealean tree ferns, which is evident in the fossil record but hidden from analyses relying on neontological data alone. Nonetheless, fossil-aware reconstructions are affected by uncertainty in fossils’ phylogenetic placement, taphonomic biases, and specimen sampling and are sensitive to interpretation of paleodistributions and how these are scored. The present results highlight the need and challenges of incorporating fossils into joint inferences of phylogeny and biogeography to improve the reliability of ancestral geographic range estimation.

Rayos, A. L., M. A. M. Renner, and S. Y. W. Ho. 2024. The Neotropical endemic liverwort subfamily Micropterygioideae had circum‐Antarctic links to the rest of the Lepidoziaceae during the early Cretaceous. Ecology and Evolution 14. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.11066

Lepidoziaceae are the third‐largest family of liverworts, with about 860 species distributed on all continents. The evolutionary history of this family has not been satisfactorily resolved, with taxa such as Micropterygioideae yet to be included in phylogenetic analyses. We inferred a dated phylogeny of Lepidoziaceae using a data set consisting of 13 genetic markers, sampled from 147 species. Based on our phylogenetic estimate, we used statistical dispersal‐vicariance analysis to reconstruct the biogeographic history of the family. We inferred a crown age of 197 Ma (95% credible interval 157–240 Ma) for the family in the Australian region, with most major lineages also originating in the same region. Micropterygioideae are placed as the sister group to Lembidioideae, with these two lineages diverging from each other about 132 Ma in the South American–Australian region. With South America and Australia being connected through Antarctica at the time, our results suggest a circum‐Antarctic link between Micropterygioideae and the rest of the family. Crown Micropterygioideae were inferred to have arisen 45 Ma in South America before the continent separated from Antarctica. Extinction from southern temperate regions might explain the present‐day restriction of Micropterygioideae to the Neotropics. Our study reveals the influence of past geological events, such as continental drift, on the evolution and distribution of a widespread and diverse family of liverworts.

Anest, A., Y. Bouchenak-Khelladi, T. Charles-Dominique, F. Forest, Y. Caraglio, G. P. Hempson, O. Maurin, and K. W. Tomlinson. 2024. Blocking then stinging as a case of two-step evolution of defensive cage architectures in herbivore-driven ecosystems. Nature Plants. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-024-01649-4

Dense branching and spines are common features of plant species in ecosystems with high mammalian herbivory pressure. While dense branching and spines can inhibit herbivory independently, when combined, they form a powerful defensive cage architecture. However, how cage architecture evolved under mammalian pressure has remained unexplored. Here we show how dense branching and spines emerged during the age of mammalian radiation in the Combretaceae family and diversified in herbivore-driven ecosystems in the tropics. Phylogenetic comparative methods revealed that modern plant architectural strategies defending against large mammals evolved via a stepwise process. First, dense branching emerged under intermediate herbivory pressure, followed by the acquisition of spines that supported higher speciation rates under high herbivory pressure. Our study highlights the adaptive value of dense branching as part of a herbivore defence strategy and identifies large mammal herbivory as a major selective force shaping the whole plant architecture of woody plants. This study explores the evolution of two traits, branching density and spine presence, in the globally distributed plant family Combretaceae. These traits were found to have appeared in a two-step process in response to mammalian herbivory pressure, revealing the importance of large mammals in the evolution of plant architecture diversity.

Mathur, M., and P. Mathur. 2024. Ecological niche modelling of Indigofera oblongifolia (Forssk.): a global machine learning assessment using climatic and non-climatic predictors. Discover Environment 2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s44274-024-00029-1

Climate change and other extinction facilitators have caused significant shifts in the distribution patterns of many species during the past few decades. Restoring and protecting lesser-known species may be more challenging without adequate biogeographical information. To address this knowledge gap, the current study set out to determine the global spatial distribution patterns of Indigofera oblongifolia (Forssk) a relatively lesser-known leguminous species. This was accomplished by utilizing three distinct bioclimatic temporal frames (current, 2050, and 2070) and four greenhouse gas scenarios (RCPs 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5), in addition to non-climatic predictors such as global livestock population, human modification of terrestrial ecosystems, and global fertilizers application (nitrogen and phosphorus). Furthermore, we evaluate the degree of indigenousness using the geographical area, habitat suitability categories, and number of polygons. This research reveals that climatic predictors outperform non-climatic predictors in terms of improving model quality. Precipitation Seasonality is one of the most important factors influencing this species' optimum habitat suitability up to 150 mm for the current, 2050 RCP 8.5 and 2070-RCPs 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5. Our ellipsoid niche modelling extends the range of precipitation during the wettest quarter and maximum temperature during the warmest month to 637 mm and 26.5–31.80 degrees Celsius, respectively. India has a higher indigenous score in the optimal class than the African region. This findings suggest that the species in question tends to occupy contiguous regions in Africa, while in India, it is dispersed into several smaller meta-populations.

Minghetti, E., P. M. Dellapé, M. Maestro, and S. I. Montemayor. 2024. Evaluating the climatic suitability of Engytatus passionarius Minghetti et al. (Heteroptera, Miridae) as a biological control agent of the invasive stinking passion flower Passiflora foetida L. in Australia through ecological niche models. Biological Control 191: 105461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2024.105461

Passiflora foetida is a climbing vine, native to the Neotropical Region that is causing major economic and ecological damage in Australia, where it is rapidly spreading. Traditional control options, such as cutting, manual uprooting, and herbicide applications are only effective for local management. Currently, the plant bug Engytatus passionarius is the most promising biological control agent. Specificity tests performed in its native range in Argentina suggest it is highly specific to the plant, and it has not been observed in the field associated with other plants. As climate determines the establishment of insects, knowing if the environmental conditions suit their requirements is key to introducing a species in a region. Also, an overlap between the climatic niches of species is an indicator of similar requirements. To explore the possibilities of a successful establishment of E. passionarius in Australia, ecological niche models (ENM) were built for the plant bug and for the vine and their overlap was measured. The ENM projected to Australia recognized suitable environmental conditions for the establishment of E. passionarius in several regions where P. foetida is present, both for current and future scenarios. Moreover, the niche of the plant bug is almost completely overlapped with that of the vine. All the aforementioned evidence seems to indicate that E. passionarius has a good chance to become an effective biological control agent of P. foetida.

Rautela, K., A. Kumar, S. K. Rana, A. Jugran, and I. D. Bhatt. 2024. Distribution, Chemical Constituents and Biological Properties of Genus Malaxis. Chemistry & Biodiversity. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202301830

The genus Malaxis (family Orchidaceae), comprises nearly 183 species available across the globe. The plants of this genus have long been employed in traditional medical practices because of their numerous biological properties, like the treatment of infertility, hemostasis, burning sensation, bleeding diathesis, fever, diarrhea, dysentery, febrifuge, tuberculosis, etc. Various reports highlight their phytochemical composition and biological activities. However, there is a lack of systematic review on the distribution, phytochemistry, and biological properties of this genus. Hence, this study aims to conduct a thorough and critical review of Malaxis species, covering data published from 1965 to 2022 with nearly 90 articles. Also, it examines different bioactive compounds, their chemistry, and pharmacotherapeutics as well as their traditional uses. A total of 191 unique compounds, including the oil constituents were recorded from Malaxis species. The highest active ingredients were obtained from Malaxis acuminata (103) followed by Malaxis muscifera (50) and Malaxis rheedei (33). In conclusion, this review offers an overview of the current state of knowledge on Malaxis species and highlights prospects for future research projects on them. Additionally, it recommends the promotion of domestication studies for rare medicinal orchids like Malaxis and the prompt implementation of conservation measures.

Putra, A. R., K. A. Hodgins, and A. Fournier‐Level. 2023. Assessing the invasive potential of different source populations of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) through genomically informed species distribution modelling. Evolutionary Applications. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.13632

The genetic composition of founding populations is likely to play a key role in determining invasion success. Individual genotypes may differ in habitat preference and environmental tolerance, so their ability to colonize novel environments can be highly variable. Despite the importance of genetic variation on invasion success, its influence on the potential distribution of invaders is rarely investigated. Here, we integrate population genomics and ecological niche models (ENMs) into a single framework to predict the distribution of globally invasive common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Australia. We identified three genetic clusters for ragweed and used these to construct cluster‐specific ENMs and characterize within‐species niche differentiation. The potential range of ragweed in Australia depended on the genetic composition and continent of origin of the introduced population. Invaders originating from warmer, wetter climates had a broader potential distribution than those from cooler, drier ones. By quantifying this change, we identified source populations most likely to expand the ragweed distribution. As prevention remains the most effective method of invasive species management, our work provides a valuable way of ranking the threat posed by different populations to better inform management decisions.