(Table S2) Age determination of ODP Sites 202-1234 and 202-1235
Antarctic Intermediate Water is, at present, a water mass that brings oxygen to intermediate depths throughout the Southern Hemisphere oceans. Models have suggested that intermediate waters had higher concentrations of oxygen during the last glacial period (Meissner et al., 2005, doi:10.1029/2004PA001083; Liu et al., 2002, doi:10.1029/2001GL013938), consistent with globally reduced denitrification (Galbraith et al., doi:10.1029/2003PA001000) and increased production of Antarctic Intermediate Water (Lynch-Stieglitz and Fairbanks, 1994, doi:10.1029/93PA02446). However, some palaeoceanographic reconstructions (Bostock et al., 2004, doi:10.1029/2004PA001047; Pahnke and Zahn, 2005, doi:10.1126/science.1102163) have indicated that production decreased in the southeast Pacific Ocean at this time. Here we analyse the concentrations of Re and Mn, the sedimentary concentrations of which are controlled by the amount of dissolved oxygen at the sea floor, from three sediment cores located along the Chilean margin for the past 30,000 years. Our results from the cores, which bracket the present-day water-column extent of Antarctic Intermediate Water, show that the depth range of well-oxygenated Antarctic Intermediate Water increased off Chile during the Last Glacial Maximum. Dissolved oxygen content began to decrease approximately 17,000 years ago, coincident with rapid Antarctic warming and a poleward shift of the southern westerly winds (Anderson et al., 2009, doi:10.1126/science.1167441). Our estimates of productivity from accumulation rates of organic carbon and opal do not co-vary with the seafloor oxygen variations, ruling out local control of seafloor oxygenation. We conclude that the data are best explained by a combination of increased oxygenation and increased flux of Antarctic Intermediate Water during the Last Glacial Maximum.