(Table 2) Relative abundance of planktonic foraminifera species in Pliocene - Early Quaternary sediments from ODP Hole 111-677A
Planktonic foraminifera from Pliocene - Early Quaternary sediments of ODP Hole 111-677A were studied in detail. It was shown that the majority of detected zonal taxa are reliable biostratigraphic reference points. Between 30 and 210 m in the core zones of planktonic foraminifera from PL1b to Pt1 (according to the W.A. Berggren scale) were distinguished. Changes of planktonic foraminifera complexes from sediments of Hole 111-677A are closely associated with climate-controlled development of surface water masses of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific during 4.6-0.65 million years ago. Sharp decrease in equatorial-tropical species about 3.4 million years ago correlated with cessation of surface water exchange between tropical regions of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans due to formation of the Central American isthmus. The paleotemperature method of M.S Barash was used for reconstructing surface temperatures. Maximum temperatures were reconstructed in late Early Pliocene (26.4°C) and in Late Pliocene (26.6°C) and minimum ones - in the beginning of Early Pliocene (18.4°C), in the middle of Late Pliocene (19.6°C). Cold events occurred: 4.6-4.3, 2.8-2.5, and 1.7-1.2 million years ago, and warm: 4.3, 4.18-3.4, 2.5-2.3, and 1 million years ago. In general, the middle of Early Pliocene, the middle of late Pliocene and early Pleistocene are characterized by cold-water conditions, and the end of Early and the end of Late Pliocene - by warm-water conditions.